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'Language' and Intelligence in Monkeys and Apes

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Science, , Gillespie-Lynch, K. The role of dialogue in the ontogeny and phylogeny of early symbol combinations: A cross-species comparison of bonobo, chimpanzee, and human learners. First Language, 31 4 , Greenfield, P. Grammatical combination in Pan paniscus: Processes of learning and invention in the evolution and development of language. Gibson Eds. Imitation, grammatical development, and the invention of protogrammar by an ape.

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Krasnegor, D. Rumbaugh, R. Studdert-Kennedy Eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Hauser, M. The Language Faculty: What is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? The mystery of language evolution. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, Lyn, H. Semiotic combinations in Pan: A comparison of communication in a chimpanzee and two bonobos. Food retrieval was filmed by the camera operator, who was in full view of the experimenter and was unaware where the object was hidden.

If the food was found, it was offered to the chimpanzee. A response started immediately after the pointing gesture of the experimenter was made and ended when the experimenter made another pointing gesture, started walking or searched through the groundcover with the stick.

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  6. Indicative gestures made by the chimpanzees that were coded included any movement that appeared to be aimed at a specific distal target or a lexigram keyboard, using both an extended index finger and open hand. The morphology of indicative gestures towards the hidden object was described in terms of the arm, forearm and finger positions and classified as follows: indicate up arm, forearm and finger directed vertically up or indicate down arm, forearm and finger directed horizontally or down.

    Additionally, the direction of gesturing was recorded using the following categories: object pointing in the direction of the object , other direction. Non-indicative gestures coded included armshake, defined as any shaking or swinging of one or both hands or arms repeatedly; bobbing subject bobs and weaves with head or whole body in bowing position upwards or forwards and rocking subject stands or sits and rocks its body from side to side or from forwards to backwards.

    Two additional behavioural responses recorded were scratching and vocalizations for full descriptions of categories coded see Table 2. The trial started when Experimenter 2 arrived outdoors and began to interact with the chimpanzee as opposed to when they interacted indoors , and the end of the trial was the moment the food item was found, removed from its location and given to the chimpanzee.

    All potential pointing gestures made by the experimenter while walking were excluded because they were not responded to by the chimpanzees and it was not always possible to reliably determine the accuracy of these pointing gestures relative to the food location. Each time the experimenter made a pointing gesture, the following three pieces of information were recorded. This was scored as correct, too far or too close, by assessing whether hidden object fell inside, outside or on the circle visually drawn by the end of line extended from the end of the stick held by the experimenter.

    Finally, the visual attention of the experimenter to the chimpanzee was recorded as attention present experimenter looking at the chimpanzee, as judged from the direction of his head or absent any other direction. The presence of the object was coded as object absent object hidden or object found object located and removed from the hiding place by the experimenter ; for these analyses, the behavioural responses of the chimpanzees were recorded when the experimenter was either locomoting or standing and pointing in a direction or inspecting the surface of the ground.

    The coding of the responses ended when the experimenter disengaged from the chimpanzee and left the area. For the main analyses of chimpanzee behaviour during trials with the experienced experimenter, each subject was analysed individually. For each subject, data from all six trials were pooled for analyses, with paired comparisons used to analyse behaviour patterns. As trials varied in length, all behaviours were either converted to rates per min or proportions of all points. The additional trials with an inexperienced experimenter, to examine whether experience of the experimenter affected the success in finding food, were pooled for both chimpanzees, matching trials in terms of the chimpanzee taking part in the trial and the distance to the food hidden.

    Non-parametric statistics were used with the alpha level set at 0. How to cite this article: Roberts, A. Chimpanzees modify intentional gestures to coordinate a search for hidden food.

    Primate Intelligence: Apes Essay example -- Brain Size, Cognition, Food

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    'Language' and Intelligence in Monkeys and Apes: Comparative Developmental Perspectives

    Cambridge University Press Bullinger, A. Coordination of chimpanzees Pan troglodytes in a Stag hunt game. A new look at infant pointing. Gomez, J. Ratner, N. Games, social exchange and the acquisition of language. When is communication a meeting of minds. Roberts, A. The repertoire and intentionality of gestural communication in wild chimpanzees. Cogn DOI A structure-based repertoire of manual gestures in wild chimpanzees: statistical analyses of a graded communication system.

    Communicative intentions in wild chimpanzees: persistence and elaboration in gestural signalling. Usage and comprehension of manual gestures in wild chimpanzees. Warneken, F. Cooperative activities in young children and chimpanzees. Menzel, E. Jr Communication about the environment in a group of young chimpanzees. Folia Primatol. Menzel, Jr E. Menzel E. Jr in Behavior of Nonhuman Primates Vol. Purposive behavior as a basis for objective communication between chimpanzees.

    Science , — Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Linguistically mediated tool use and exchange by chimpanzees Pan troglodytes. Cartmill, E. Orangutans modify their gestural signalling according to their audience's comprehension. Sayers, K. Memory and foraging theory: chimpanzee utilization of optimality heuristics in the rank-order recovery of hidden foods. Menzel, C. Unprompted recall and reporting of hidden objects by a chimpanzee Pan troglodytes after extended delays.

    Melis, A.

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    Chimpanzees help conspecifics obtain food and non-food items. Kendon, A.

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    Ross, H. Communication within infant social games. Hopkins, W.

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    Intentional communication by chimpanzees: a cross-sectional study of the use of referential gestures. The whole-hand point: the structure and function of pointing from a comparative perspective. Indexical and referential pointing in chimpanzees Pan troglodytes. Gillespie-Lynch, K.